History of Tourism

The earliest
forms of leisure tourism can be traced as far back as the Babylonian and
Egyptian empires. A museum of “historic antiquities” was open to the public in
the sixth century BC in Babylon, while the Egyptians held many religious
festivals attracting not only the devout, but many who came to see the famous
buildings and works of art in the cities. The local towns accommodated tourists
by providing services such as: vendors of food and drink, guides, hawkers of
souvenirs, touts and prostitutes.

From around the
same date, Greek tourists travelled to visit the sites of healing gods. Because
the independent city-states of ancient Greece had no central authority to order
the construction of roads, most of these tourists travelled by water, hence
seaports prospered.
The lands of the
Mediterranean Sea produced a remarkable evolution in travel. People travel for
trade, commerce, religious purposes, festivals, medical treatment, or education
developed at an early date.

Guidebooks became
available as early as the fourth century BC, covering a vast area of
destinations, i.e. Athens, Sparta and Troy. Pausanias, a Greek travel writer,
produced a noted “description of Greece” between AD 160 and 180, which, in its
critical evaluation of facilities and destinations, acted as a model for later
writers. Advertisements, in the form of signs directing visitors to wayside
inns, are also known from this period. However, under Romans rule is where
international travel became first important. With no foreign borders between
England and Syria, and with the seas safe from piracy due to the Roman patrols,
conditions favoring travel had arrived. Roman coinage was acceptable
everywhere, and Latin was the common language. Romans travelled to Sicily,
Greece, Rhodes, and Troy, Egypt and from the third century AD, to the Holy

Domestic tourism
also flourished within the Roman Empire. Second homes were built by the wealthy
within easy travelling distance…
2000 years Before Christ, in India and
Travel for trade was an important feature
since the beginning of civilisation. The port at Lothal was an important centre
of trade between the Indus valley civilisation and the Sumerian civilisation.

600 BC and thereafter
The earliest form of leisure tourism can be
traced as far back as the Babylonian and Egyptian empires. A museum of historic
antiquities was open to the public in Babylon. The Egyptians held many
religious festivals that attracted the devout and many people who thronged to
cities to see famous works of arts and buildings.
In India, as elsewhere, kings travelled for
empire building. The Brahmins and the common people travelled for religious
purposes. Thousands of Brahmins and the common folk thronged Sarnath and
Sravasti to be greeted by the inscrutable smile of the Enlightened One- the

500 BC, the Greek civilisation
The Greek tourists travelled to sites of
healing gods. The Greeks also enjoyed their religious festivals that
increasingly became a pursuit of pleasure, and in particular, sport. Athens had
become an important site for travellers visiting the major sights such as the
Parthenon. Inns were established in large towns and seaports to provide for
travellers' needs. Courtesans were the principal entertainment offered.
This era also saw the birth of travel writing. Herodotus was the worlds' first
travel writer. Guidebooks also made their appearance in the fourth century
covering destinations such as Athens, Sparta and Troy. Advertisements in the
way of signs directing people to inns are also known in this period.

The Roman Empire
With no foreign borders between England and
Syria, and with safe seas from piracy due to Roman patrols, the conditions
favouring travel had arrived. First class roads coupled with staging inns
(precursors of modern motels) promoted the growth of travel. Romans travelled
to Sicily, Greece, Rhodes, Troy and Egypt. From 300 AD travel to the Holy Land
also became very popular. The Romans introduced their guidebooks (itineraria),
listing hotels with symbols to identify quality.

Second homes were built by the rich near Rome,
occupied primarily during springtime social season. The most fashionable
resorts were found around Bay of Naples. Naples attracted the retired and the
intellectuals, Cumae attracted the fashionable while Baiae attracted the down
market tourist, becoming noted for its rowdiness, drunkenness and all- night
Travel and Tourism were to never attain a
similar status until the modern times.

In the Middle Ages
Travel became difficult and dangerous as
people travelled for business or for a sense of obligation and duty.
Adventurers sought fame and fortune through
travel. The Europeans tried to discover a sea route to India for trade purposes
and in this fashion discovered America and explored parts of Africa. Strolling
players and minstrels made their living by performing as they travelled.
Missionaries, saints, etc. travelled to spread the sacred word.
Leisure travel in India was introduced by the
Mughals. The Mughal kings built luxurious palaces and enchanting gardens at
places of natural and scenic beauty (for example Jehangir travelled to Kashmir
drawn by its beauty.
Travel for empire building and pilgrimage was
a regular feature.

The Grand Tour
From the early seventeenth century, a new form
of tourism was developed as a direct outcome of the Renaissance. Under the
reign of Elizabeth 1, young men seeking positions at court were encouraged to
travel to continent to finish their education. Later, it became customary
for education of gentleman to be completed by a 'Grand Tour' accompanied by a
tutor and lasting for three or more years. While ostensibly educational, the
pleasure seeking men travelled to enjoy life and culture of Paris, Venice or
Florence. By the end of eighteenth century, the custom had become
institutionalised in the gentry. Gradually pleasure travel displaced
educational travel. The advent of Napoleonic wars inhibited travel for around
30 years and led to the decline of the custom of the Grand Tour.

The development of the spas
The spas grew in popularity in the seventeenth
century in Britain and a little later in the European Continent as awareness
about the therapeutic qualities of mineral water increased.
 Taking the cure in the spa rapidly acquired the nature of a
status symbol. The resorts changed in character as pleasure became the
motivation of visits. They became an important centre of social life for the
high society.
In the nineteenth century they were gradually
replaced by the seaside resort.

The sun, sand and sea resorts
The sea water became associated with health
benefits. The earliest visitors therefore drank it and did not bathe in it. By
the early eighteenth century, small fishing resorts sprung up in England for
visitors who drank and immersed themselves in sea water. With the overcrowding
of inland spas, the new sea side resorts grew in popularity. The introduction
of steamboat services in 19th century introduced more resorts in the circuit.
The seaside resort gradually became a social meeting point

Role of the industrial revolution in
promoting travel in the west
 The rapid urbanisation due to
industrialisation led to mass immigration in cities. These people were lured
into travel to escape their environment to places of natural beauty, often to
the countryside they had come from change of routine from a physically and
psychologically stressful jobs to a leisurely pace in countryside.

Highlights of travel in the nineteenth
Advent of railway initially catalysed business travel and later leisure travel.
Gradually special trains were chartered to only take leisure travel to their
Package tours organised by entrepreneurs such as Thomas Cook.
The European countries indulged in a lot of business travel often to their
colonies to buy raw material and sell finished goods.
The invention of photography acted as a status-enhancing tool and promoted
overseas travel.
The formation of first hotel chains; pioneered by the railway companies who
established great railway terminus hotels.
Seaside resorts began to develop different images as for day-trippers, elite,
for gambling.
Other types of destinations-ski resorts, hill stations, mountaineering spots
The technological development in steamships promoted travel between North
America and Europe.
The Suez Canal opened direct sea routes to India and the Far East.
The cult of the guidebook followed the development of photography.
Tourism in the Twentieth Century
The First World War gave first hand experience
of countries and aroused a sense of curiosity about international travel among
less well off sector for the first time. The large scale of migration to the US
meant a lot of travel across the Atlantic. Private motoring began to encourage
domestic travel in Europe and the west.  The sea side resort became annual
family holiday destination in Britain and increased in popularity in other
countries of the west. Hotels proliferated in these destinations.

The birth of air travel and after
The wars increased interest in international
travel. This interest was given the shape of mass tourism by the aviation
industry. The surplus of aircrafts and growth of private airlines aided the
expansion of air travel. The aircraft had become comfortable, faster and
steadily cheaper for overseas travel. With the introduction of Boeing 707 jet
in 1958, the age of air travel for the masses had arrived. The beginning of
chartered flights boosted the package tour market and led to the establishment
of organised mass tourism. The Boeing 747, a 400 seat craft, brought the cost
of travel down sharply. The seaside resorts in the Mediterranean, North Africa
and the Caribbean were the initial hot spots of mass tourism.

A corresponding growth in hotel industry led
to the establishment of world-wide chains. Tourism also began to diversify as
people began to flock alternative destinations in the 70s. Nepal and India
received a throng of tourists lured by Hare Krishna movement and transcendental
meditation. The beginning of individual travel in a significant volume only
occurred in the 80s. Air travel also led to a continuous growth in
business travel especially with the emergence of the MNCs.

Contributions of Entrepreneurship in Society

Entrepreneurs have much to give to society. Their contribution
to the welfare of society is of high order. A business person apart from making
money for him or herself also helps the society in many ways financially and
Financially, of course the respective country benefits by the
business carried out by entrepreneurs. At the same time many of the welfare
activities of the businessman improve the living conditions of the people of
that particular society.

How does an entrepreneur help the society?

Donations – A business person donates a lot of money for charity
purposes. From his or her earnings, he or she would like to help the
downtrodden and try to improve their living conditions.

Charitable institutions – A businessman or woman sets up various educational, medical
and vocational training institutions to provide the less privileged with
benefits which they normally cannot afford. The fees may be less or waived in the
case of a meritorious student. Hospitals are also run by these charitable

Sponsorship – Many business people sponsor a candidate for higher education
or fund a child in an orphanage. In fact, many orphanages are backed by these
business people. Scholarships are provided to a poor student for him or her to
avail of better educational opportunities.

Welfare programs – A businessman or woman financially contributes to various
welfare programs, like helping the blind, orphans, widow etc. In times of
crisis, they help by donating items such as blankets, clothes, medicines etc.

Advisors to respective government – Many successful
business people participate in government activities in order to promote the
well-being of the citizens. The government often seeks their advice on certain
social and economic activities.

Business is essential for the progress of a nation. A successful
businessman or woman is an asset to the society. He or she can contribute to
the wellbeing of a society in several ways that improve the living conditions
of the people.

Break Even Analysis

If you can accurately forecast your
costs and sales, conducting a 
break even analysis is a matter of simple math. A company has broken even when its total sales or revenues equal its total
expenses. At the 
break even point, no profit has been made, nor have any losses
been incurred. This calculation is critical for any business owner, because the 
break even point is the lower limit of profit when determining margins.

Defining Costs: – There are several types of costs to
consider when conducting a 
break even analysis, so here’s a refresher on the
most relevant.

These are costs
that are the same regardless of how many items you sell. All start-up costs,
such as rent, insurance and computers, are considered fixed costs since you
have to make these outlays before you sell your first item.

These are
recurring costs that you absorb with each unit you sell. For example, if you
were operating a greeting card store where you had to buy greeting cards from a
stationary company for $1 each, then that dollar represents a variable cost. As
your business and sales grow, you can begin appropriating labor and other items
as variable costs if it makes sense for your industry.

Setting a Price: – This is critical to your break even analysis; you
can’t calculate likely revenues if you don’t know what the unit price will be.
Unit price refers to the amount you plan to charge customers to buy a single
unit of your product.

of Pricing:
Pricing can involve a complicated decision-making process on
the part of the consumer, and there is plenty of research on the marketing and
psychology of how consumers perceive price. Take the time to review articles on
pricing strategy and the psychology of pricing before choosing how to price
your product or service.

Pricing Methods:
There are several different schools of thought on how to treat price when
conducting a break even analysis. It is a mix of quantitative and qualitative
factors. If you’ve created a brand new, unique product, you should be able to
charge a premium price, but if you’re entering a competitive industry, you’ll
have to keep the price in line with the going rate or perhaps even offer a
discount to get customers to switch to your company.
One common strategy is “cost-based
, which calls for figuring out how much it will cost to
produce one unit of an item and setting the price to that amount plus a
predetermined profit margin. This approach is frowned upon since it allows
competitors who can make the product for less than you to easily undercut you
on price. Another method, referred to by David G. Bakken of Harris Interactive
as “price-based costing” encourages business owners to
“start with the price that consumers are willing to pay (when they have
competitive alternatives) and whittle down costs to meet that price.” That
way if you encounter new competition, you can lower your price and still turn a
profit. This presentation from Harris
Interactive offers a further explanation of these methods, and About.com offers
an overview of common pricing methods.

The formula: To conduct breakeven analysis, take
your fixed costs, divided by your price, minus your variable costs. As an
equation, this is defined as:

Breakeven Point = Fixed Costs / (Unit
Selling Price – Variable Costs)
This calculation
will let you know how many units of a product you’ll need to sell to break
even. Once you’ve reached that point, you’ve recovered all costs associated
with producing your product (both variable and fixed). Above the break even
point, every additional unit sold increases profit by the amount of the unit
contribution margin, which is defined as the amount each unit contributes to
covering fixed costs and increasing profits. As an equation, this is defined

Unit Contribution Margin = Sales Price –
Variable Costs

Recording this information in a
spreadsheet will allow you to easily make adjustments as costs change over
time, as well as play with different price options and easily calculate the
break even point. You could use a program such as Excel’s Goal Seek,
if you wanted to give yourself a goal of a certain profit, say $1 million, and
then work backwards to see how many units you would need to sell to hit that

– It is important to understand what the results of your break even analysis are
telling you. If, for example, the calculation reports that you would break even
when you sold your 500th unit, decide whether this seems feasible. If you don’t
think you can sell 500 units within a reasonable period of time (dictated by
your financial situation, patience and personal expectations), then this may
not be the right business for you to go into. If you think 500 units is
possible but would take a while, try lowering your price and calculating and
analyzing the new break even point. 

Alternative tourism

tourism can be defined as ‘forms of tourism that set out to be consistent with
natural, social and community values and which allow both hosts and guests to
enjoy positive and worthwhile interaction and shared experiences’. It involves
traveling to relatively remote, undisturbed natural areas with the objective of
admiring, studying and enjoying the scenery and its wild plants and animals and
cultural attributes. It also considers the conservation of the environment and sustenance
and well-being of local people. Further, clients are expected to be
individuals. Accommodations are locally owned and small-scale. In general, alternative tourism is an alternative to the
mass standard tourism as philosophy and attitude. The main accent in these
travels is the preserved natural environment, authentic atmosphere and cuisine,
and local traditions. The alternative forms of tourism combine tourist products
or separate tourist services, different from the mass tourism by means of
supply, organization and the human resource involved. These are rural, ecotourism, adventure (biking,
horseback riding, snowshoeing, ski mountaineering, rafting, diving, caving,
climbing), thematic tourism –
connected with the cultural and historical heritage, the esoteric, religion, wine,
traditional cuisine, ethnography and traditional music and handicrafts.

Features of Alternative Tourism

The attempted preservation, protection and enhancement of the quality of the resource
base which is fundamental to tourism itself.

The fostering and active promotion of development, in relation to additional visitor
attractions and infrastructure, with roots in the specific locale and developed
in ways that complement local attributes.

The endorsement of infrastructure, hence economic growth, when and where it improves
local conditions and not where it is destructive or exceeds the carrying capacity
of the natural environment or the limits of the social environment whereby the
quality of community life is adversely affected.

Tourism which attempts to minimize its impact upon the environment, is ecologically
sound, and avoids the negative impacts of many large-scale tourism developments
undertaken in areas that have not previously been developed.

An emphasis on not only ecological sustainability, but also cultural sustainability.
That is, tourism which does not damage the culture of the host community,
encouraging a respect for the cultural realities experienced by the tourists
through education and organized 'encounters'.

Resource Management – Basics

A resource is a source or supply from which
benefit is produced. Typically resources are materials, energy, services,
staff, knowledge, or other assets that are transformed to produce benefit and
in the process may be consumed or made unavailable. Benefits of resource
utilization may include increased wealth, meeting needs or wants, proper
functioning of a system, or enhanced well being. From a 
human perspective a natural resource is anything obtained from the environment to satisfy human needs and wants.
of Economic Resources
 are the factors used in
producing goods or providing services. In other words, they are the inputs that
are used to create things or help you provide services. Economic resources can
be divided into human resources, such as labor and management, and nonhuman
resources, such as land, capital goods, financial resources, and technology.

of Economic Resources
An economy is
a system of institutions and organizations that either help facilitate or are
directly involved in the production and distribution of goods and services.
Economic resources are the inputs we use to produce and distribute goods and
services. The precise proportion of each factor of production will vary from
product to product and from service to service, and the goal is to make the
most effective use of the resources that maximizes output at the least possible
Misapplication or improper use of resources may cause businesses, and even
entire economies, to fail.
Resource Management

Definition : The process of using a company's resources in the most efficient way possible.
These resources can include 
tangible resources such as goods and equipment, financial resources,
labor resources such as employees.

Resource management is the efficient and
effective deployment and allocation of an organization’s resources when and
where they are needed. Such resources may include financial resources,
inventory, human skills, production resources, or information technology.
Resource management includes planning, allocating and scheduling of resources
to tasks, which typically include manpower, machines, money and materials.
Resource management has an impact on schedules and budgets as well as resource
leveling and smoothing.
In order to effectively manage resources,
organizations must have data on resource demands forecasted by time period into
the future, the resource configurations that will be required to meet those
demands and the supply of resources, again forecasted into the future.
Forecasts should be as far out as is reasonable. Resource leveling, as it
relates to inventory, is a resource management technique aimed at keeping the
stock of resources on hand level, reducing both excess inventories and
shortages. In project management, resource leveling is scheduling decisions,
which are driven by resource management concerns, such as limited resource
availability. As opposed to leveling, resource smoothing may not delay the
project completion date, only particular activities within their float.
Many organizations use professional services
automation software tools to make resource management tasks more efficient and
effective. The automated tools may include 
time-sheet software and employee time
tracking software, which calculate skill sets, experience and workload in
selecting the most skilled employee in an organization to handle any specific
project. This enables the organization to forecast future staffing requirements
prior to project implementation.